something interesting

<  BACK TO Market Analysis

PIG TODAY-DRAGHI-Moving to the Frontier: Promoting the Diffusion of Innovation

Welcome address by Mario Draghi, President of the ECB, at the joint conference by the ECB and the MIT Lab for Innovation Science and Policy “Fostering Innovation and Entrepreneurship in the Euro area”,

Frankfurt am Main, 13 March 2017 It is my pleasure to welcome you to this joint ECB-MIT conference on fostering innovation and entrepreneurship in the euro area.

This might at first glance seem an unusual topic for a central bank conference, since monetary policy principally operates through the demand side of the economy. But the long-term supply picture evidently also affects our ability to deliver on our mandate.

Much of the debate today about the true level of the real equilibrium interest rate, for example, is a debate about the outlook for productivity growth, which of course depends in large part on innovation and entrepreneurship. Higher productivity growth is also vital to safeguard Europe’s economic model of high wages and social protection, and hence to counter the sense of economic insecurity that is currently prevalent in several advanced economies.

But aggregate productivity growth is more than just the development and application of innovation and new technologies which enhance or even revolutionise production processes. New technologies invented elsewhere need to be adapted by firms into their own production processes to make them more efficient. In short, productivity growth depends not only on the creation of new ideas, but also on and their diffusion.

To raise productivity growth, which has slowed in the euro area and in many other economies in recent years, we need to focus on both areas.

Innovation

There is a lively debate underway as to whether the rate of innovation has slowed or not. Some argue that the great innovations of the past – electricity, railways, etc. – will not be matched in the future, or that we have exhausted the gains from the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) revolution. Others remain more optimistic that the current slowdown in productivity reflects a transition to a knowledge-based economy, and that general purpose technologies such as ICT improve over time and generate complementary innovations.

My view on the topic is that we should not be overly gloomy about the global prospects for innovation, for two reasons.

The first is that we clearly have potential to boost innovative capacity in the euro area. Consider, for example, the persistent gap between R&D spending in Europe and other major advanced economies. According to the World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Indicator, only three euro area countries are in the world top ten for innovation.

So if, as the world’s second largest economic area, we were to dismantle barriers to innovative activity in the euro area, it would clearly give a boost to global innovation. I will not go into detail here about what policies this might entail, but clearly government support for innovation matters: in Europe differences in innovative capacity between countries are closely related to public spending on R&D, particularly in basic research.

The second reason why I am reasonably optimistic is that there is no clear evidence yet of a slowdown in innovation. The available data in terms of global R&D spending, and the ongoing historically high rate of high-tech patent registrations, seem to challenge this perception.

Moreover, despite the global slowdown in aggregate productivity, firms at the global productivity frontier have continued to post strong productivity gains over the past decade. The performance of euro area businesses at the global frontier is on a par with businesses in other developed economies, particularly in manufacturing. It is the performance of firms away from the frontier that has been lagging (Charts 1 and 2). Although this is a common feature for all OECD countries, it is particularly the case for euro area services, where productivity growth for the laggard firms has stagnated.

Chart 1: Technology diffusion globally and in the euro area in manufacturing

(2003=1)

Source: ECB staff calculations based on OECD and the 5th vintage of CompNet data.

Note: The OECD frontier and non-frontier productivity developments are taken from OECD (2015). Labour productivity growth in the euro area is the unweighted average across Belgium, Finland, France, Italy and Spain of the median firm in each two-digit industry based on CompNet data. Manufacturing industries are then aggregated with value added shares.

Chart 2: Technology diffusion globally and in the euro area in services

(2003=1)

Source: ECB staff calculations based on OECD and the 5th vintage of CompNet data.

Note: The OECD frontier and non-frontier productivity developments are taken from OECD (2015). Labour productivity growth in the euro area is the unweighted average across Belgium, Finland, France, Italy and Spain of the median firm in each two-digit industry based on CompNet data. Service industries are then aggregated with value added shares.

Diffusion

It seems, therefore, that a large contributing factor to the slowdown in aggregate productivity is the second link in the chain: the lack of diffusion of innovation.

This is a long-standing issue for the euro area: better adoption of ICT in the United States appears to explain most of the productivity gap between the US and the EU15 from 1995 to 2007. The contribution to aggregate productivity growth from non-ICT sources of capital deepening and total factor productivity (TFP) growth over that period was broadly equivalent in the two regions.[5]

But what is now becoming clearer is where the diffusion gaps lie. Recent work carried out by the ECB using micro data shows that the difference in productivity between the most productive and the least productive firms in each narrow, two-digit sector is considerable. The top 10 per cent of firms, in terms of productivity, are on average three times more productive than the firms in the bottom 10% (Chart 3). Similar differentials occur in the United States.[6]intra-industry productivity differential dwarfs inter-industry differentials. For comparison, firms active in the tradables sector are on average around 50% more productive than those producing mainly non-tradables.

Chart 3: Productivity differences across tradable and non-tradable sectors versus productivity differences within sectors in 15 EU countries

Notes: According to the AMECO classification, tradable sectors include: manufacturing, wholesale and retail trade, transportation and storage, and information and communications technology. Non-tradable sectors include: construction, hotels and restaurants, and professional and administrative services. The within-sector 90th percentile/10th percentile productivity ratio is aggregated to the country level using sector shares in total value added. The “old” EU countries are Belgium, Denmark, France, Italy, Portugal and Finland. The “new” EU countries are the Czech Republic, Estonia, Croatia, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Romania, Slovenia and Slovakia.

How, then, can we improve the diffusion of innovation from the frontier to the laggard firms, especially within sectors? Research suggests three main areas that will improve the capacity of, and incentives for, firms to adopt new technology: (i) investing in human capital and managerial ability, (ii) investment in intangibles, and (iii) improving economic dynamism.

Investment in human capital and management

First, there is now an extensive literature on the complementarities between technology and workforce skills, and on how better human capital increases the capacity to absorb technologies. Human capital includes not just formal education, but also on-the-job training and job security – firms with a large proportion of workers on temporary contracts underperform in terms of innovation.

Managerial ability is also key for the adoption of technology. New technologies often require new structures and a reorganisation of production to maximise efficiency gains. While managerial quality is hard to quantify, the existing studies find a statistically strong correlation between a firm’s managerial quality and its total factor productivity. One of the channels through which managerial practices enhance firm performance has been found to be the increased capability of firms to absorb new technologies.

Certainly there is potential to improve education systems in the euro area and thereby to give greater numbers of graduates the necessary technical and scientific skills. Our co-hosts today, MIT, came top of the latest QS world university rankings. There are nine UK universities and two Swiss universities in the top 50 of those rankings, but only one euro area university.

And education is not just for the young. Improving the provision of life-long learning and retraining programmes will aid the flow of skilled labour towards more productive businesses.

Investment in intangibles

Second, numerous studies have shown that firms which invest more in intangibles are in a better position to understand and benefit from new technologies. Such investment includes conducting their own R&D and developing their own intellectual property, as well as investment in branding, software and databases.

Investment in intangibles also appears low in the euro area compared with a number of other advanced economies, although it has been on an upward trend. The aggregate number also masks a wide country-level disparity, with the lack of intangibles investment particularly acute in some countries. Increasing the resources devoted to R&D would improve the ability of euro area firms to absorb more innovation.

Economic dynamism

The third main factor increasing absorptive capacity is the framework in which the business operates. Greater economic dynamism, from competition to higher rates of business entry, plays an important role in incentivising firms to adopt new technology. Ensuring that failed firms are able to smoothly exit the market is also key to enabling capital and labour to be allocated to where it can be more productively used.

Business churn – the combined rate of business formation and closure – has been declining in Europe and the United States since just before the crisis (Chart 4). In lock step with the decline in churn, evidence suggests that capital misallocation has been rising in both regions.

Chart 4: Business churn in the United States and Europe

Source: Eurostat and US Census.

Note: EU14 comprises Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.

As an example of barriers to business creation, it takes on average about 10 days to start a new business in the euro area. Depending on the country it can take between four days and almost a month. Yet in the global best performer – New Zealand – it is possible to set up a business in less than a day. There are barriers as well to the orderly exit of firms. Resolving insolvency takes an average of almost two years in the euro area, three times longer than in the best three performing countries.

This is why we talk frequently about the need for structural reforms of regulatory and judicial processes to bolster business dynamism, as well as the need to complete the Single Market. This is especially true in services, where the laggard firms are noticeably behind the frontier.

Of course, creating the right regulatory framework and market conditions to nurture innovation and promote its transformation into new products and processes is complex, and there is no particular established winning formula. But there are a number of countries in the euro area that have proven relatively more successful at putting in place an effective “innovation ecosystem”.

One of the aims of this conference is to investigate international and euro area best practice and facilitate the sharing of that knowledge to countries where an effective ecosystem has yet to be established.

Conclusion

Let me conclude.

There are many reasons why it is a priority today in the euro area to address weak productivity growth. But while some progress can be made in innovation, it is not in my view the sole issue. Equally important for the euro area is to facilitate and encourage the spread of new technology from the frontier to the laggard firms.

Simply by diffusing better the technology we already have in the euro area, we could make sizeable gains in productivity. In other words, there is much we can still do to reverse the aggregate productivity slowdown and dispel pessimism about our future.

Source: ecb.europa.eu

Welcome address by Mario Draghi, President of the ECB, at the joint conference by the ECB and the MIT Lab for Innovation Science and Policy “Fostering Innovation and Entrepreneurship in the Euro area”,

Frankfurt am Main, 13 March 2017 It is my pleasure to welcome you to this joint ECB-MIT conference on fostering innovation and entrepreneurship in the euro area.

This might at first glance seem an unusual topic for a central bank conference, since monetary policy principally operates through the demand side of the economy. But the long-term supply picture evidently also affects our ability to deliver on our mandate.

Much of the debate today about the true level of the real equilibrium interest rate, for example, is a debate about the outlook for productivity growth, which of course depends in large part on innovation and entrepreneurship. Higher productivity growth is also vital to safeguard Europe’s economic model of high wages and social protection, and hence to counter the sense of economic insecurity that is currently prevalent in several advanced economies.

But aggregate productivity growth is more than just the development and application of innovation and new technologies which enhance or even revolutionise production processes. New technologies invented elsewhere need to be adapted by firms into their own production processes to make them more efficient. In short, productivity growth depends not only on the creation of new ideas, but also on and their diffusion.

To raise productivity growth, which has slowed in the euro area and in many other economies in recent years, we need to focus on both areas.

Innovation

There is a lively debate underway as to whether the rate of innovation has slowed or not. Some argue that the great innovations of the past – electricity, railways, etc. – will not be matched in the future, or that we have exhausted the gains from the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) revolution. Others remain more optimistic that the current slowdown in productivity reflects a transition to a knowledge-based economy, and that general purpose technologies such as ICT improve over time and generate complementary innovations.

My view on the topic is that we should not be overly gloomy about the global prospects for innovation, for two reasons.

The first is that we clearly have potential to boost innovative capacity in the euro area. Consider, for example, the persistent gap between R&D spending in Europe and other major advanced economies. According to the World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Indicator, only three euro area countries are in the world top ten for innovation.

So if, as the world’s second largest economic area, we were to dismantle barriers to innovative activity in the euro area, it would clearly give a boost to global innovation. I will not go into detail here about what policies this might entail, but clearly government support for innovation matters: in Europe differences in innovative capacity between countries are closely related to public spending on R&D, particularly in basic research.

The second reason why I am reasonably optimistic is that there is no clear evidence yet of a slowdown in innovation. The available data in terms of global R&D spending, and the ongoing historically high rate of high-tech patent registrations, seem to challenge this perception.

Moreover, despite the global slowdown in aggregate productivity, firms at the global productivity frontier have continued to post strong productivity gains over the past decade. The performance of euro area businesses at the global frontier is on a par with businesses in other developed economies, particularly in manufacturing. It is the performance of firms away from the frontier that has been lagging (Charts 1 and 2). Although this is a common feature for all OECD countries, it is particularly the case for euro area services, where productivity growth for the laggard firms has stagnated.

Chart 1: Technology diffusion globally and in the euro area in manufacturing

(2003=1)

Source: ECB staff calculations based on OECD and the 5th vintage of CompNet data.

Note: The OECD frontier and non-frontier productivity developments are taken from OECD (2015). Labour productivity growth in the euro area is the unweighted average across Belgium, Finland, France, Italy and Spain of the median firm in each two-digit industry based on CompNet data. Manufacturing industries are then aggregated with value added shares.

Chart 2: Technology diffusion globally and in the euro area in services

(2003=1)

Source: ECB staff calculations based on OECD and the 5th vintage of CompNet data.

Note: The OECD frontier and non-frontier productivity developments are taken from OECD (2015). Labour productivity growth in the euro area is the unweighted average across Belgium, Finland, France, Italy and Spain of the median firm in each two-digit industry based on CompNet data. Service industries are then aggregated with value added shares.

Diffusion

It seems, therefore, that a large contributing factor to the slowdown in aggregate productivity is the second link in the chain: the lack of diffusion of innovation.

This is a long-standing issue for the euro area: better adoption of ICT in the United States appears to explain most of the productivity gap between the US and the EU15 from 1995 to 2007. The contribution to aggregate productivity growth from non-ICT sources of capital deepening and total factor productivity (TFP) growth over that period was broadly equivalent in the two regions.[5]

But what is now becoming clearer is where the diffusion gaps lie. Recent work carried out by the ECB using micro data shows that the difference in productivity between the most productive and the least productive firms in each narrow, two-digit sector is considerable. The top 10 per cent of firms, in terms of productivity, are on average three times more productive than the firms in the bottom 10% (Chart 3). Similar differentials occur in the United States.[6]intra-industry productivity differential dwarfs inter-industry differentials. For comparison, firms active in the tradables sector are on average around 50% more productive than those producing mainly non-tradables.

Chart 3: Productivity differences across tradable and non-tradable sectors versus productivity differences within sectors in 15 EU countries

Notes: According to the AMECO classification, tradable sectors include: manufacturing, wholesale and retail trade, transportation and storage, and information and communications technology. Non-tradable sectors include: construction, hotels and restaurants, and professional and administrative services. The within-sector 90th percentile/10th percentile productivity ratio is aggregated to the country level using sector shares in total value added. The “old” EU countries are Belgium, Denmark, France, Italy, Portugal and Finland. The “new” EU countries are the Czech Republic, Estonia, Croatia, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Romania, Slovenia and Slovakia.

How, then, can we improve the diffusion of innovation from the frontier to the laggard firms, especially within sectors? Research suggests three main areas that will improve the capacity of, and incentives for, firms to adopt new technology: (i) investing in human capital and managerial ability, (ii) investment in intangibles, and (iii) improving economic dynamism.

Investment in human capital and management

First, there is now an extensive literature on the complementarities between technology and workforce skills, and on how better human capital increases the capacity to absorb technologies. Human capital includes not just formal education, but also on-the-job training and job security – firms with a large proportion of workers on temporary contracts underperform in terms of innovation.

Managerial ability is also key for the adoption of technology. New technologies often require new structures and a reorganisation of production to maximise efficiency gains. While managerial quality is hard to quantify, the existing studies find a statistically strong correlation between a firm’s managerial quality and its total factor productivity. One of the channels through which managerial practices enhance firm performance has been found to be the increased capability of firms to absorb new technologies.

Certainly there is potential to improve education systems in the euro area and thereby to give greater numbers of graduates the necessary technical and scientific skills. Our co-hosts today, MIT, came top of the latest QS world university rankings. There are nine UK universities and two Swiss universities in the top 50 of those rankings, but only one euro area university.

And education is not just for the young. Improving the provision of life-long learning and retraining programmes will aid the flow of skilled labour towards more productive businesses.

Investment in intangibles

Second, numerous studies have shown that firms which invest more in intangibles are in a better position to understand and benefit from new technologies. Such investment includes conducting their own R&D and developing their own intellectual property, as well as investment in branding, software and databases.

Investment in intangibles also appears low in the euro area compared with a number of other advanced economies, although it has been on an upward trend. The aggregate number also masks a wide country-level disparity, with the lack of intangibles investment particularly acute in some countries. Increasing the resources devoted to R&D would improve the ability of euro area firms to absorb more innovation.

Economic dynamism

The third main factor increasing absorptive capacity is the framework in which the business operates. Greater economic dynamism, from competition to higher rates of business entry, plays an important role in incentivising firms to adopt new technology. Ensuring that failed firms are able to smoothly exit the market is also key to enabling capital and labour to be allocated to where it can be more productively used.

Business churn – the combined rate of business formation and closure – has been declining in Europe and the United States since just before the crisis (Chart 4). In lock step with the decline in churn, evidence suggests that capital misallocation has been rising in both regions.

Chart 4: Business churn in the United States and Europe

Source: Eurostat and US Census.

Note: EU14 comprises Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.

As an example of barriers to business creation, it takes on average about 10 days to start a new business in the euro area. Depending on the country it can take between four days and almost a month. Yet in the global best performer – New Zealand – it is possible to set up a business in less than a day. There are barriers as well to the orderly exit of firms. Resolving insolvency takes an average of almost two years in the euro area, three times longer than in the best three performing countries.

This is why we talk frequently about the need for structural reforms of regulatory and judicial processes to bolster business dynamism, as well as the need to complete the Single Market. This is especially true in services, where the laggard firms are noticeably behind the frontier.

Of course, creating the right regulatory framework and market conditions to nurture innovation and promote its transformation into new products and processes is complex, and there is no particular established winning formula. But there are a number of countries in the euro area that have proven relatively more successful at putting in place an effective “innovation ecosystem”.

One of the aims of this conference is to investigate international and euro area best practice and facilitate the sharing of that knowledge to countries where an effective ecosystem has yet to be established.

Conclusion

Let me conclude.

There are many reasons why it is a priority today in the euro area to address weak productivity growth. But while some progress can be made in innovation, it is not in my view the sole issue. Equally important for the euro area is to facilitate and encourage the spread of new technology from the frontier to the laggard firms.

Simply by diffusing better the technology we already have in the euro area, we could make sizeable gains in productivity. In other words, there is much we can still do to reverse the aggregate productivity slowdown and dispel pessimism about our future.

Source: ecb.europa.eu

lastest Articles

Market Analysis
Tech Targets: EUR/USD, GBP/USD, AUD/USD, NZD/USD, USD/JPY - 25.03.2019
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
Dollar Recovers Fed Driven Losses on Safe-haven Flows
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
ECB’s Draghi: International trade is main reason for slowdown
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
BoE: No surprises here – Deutsche Bank
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
Gold climbs to session tops, further beyond $1310 level
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
Gold loses momentum, edges lower toward $1300
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
BOJ’s Kuroda: “We will mull more easing if price momentum is lost"
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
FOMC Preview: What 17 major banks are expecting from March meeting?
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
Tech Targets: EUR/USD, GBP/USD, AUD/USD, NZD/USD, USD/JPY - 19.03.2019
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
Gold Technical Analysis: 18.03.2019
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
Fed is likely to signal just one more rate hike – Danske Bank
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
Tech Targets: EUR/USD, GBP/USD, AUD/USD, NZD/USD, USD/JPY -18.03.2019
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
GBP/USD fades a knee-jerk bullish spike to levels beyond 1.3300 mark
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
AUD: RBA market pricing absorbed
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
Forex Today: USD bounces alongside T-yields in Asia; UK politics/ Brexit in focus
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
EUR/USD remains bid and flirts with 1.1300, looks to Brexit, data
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
Tech Targets: EUR/USD, GBP/USD, AUD/USD, NZD/USD, USD/JPY - 13.03.2019
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
Gold adds to gains beyond $1300 mark, hits 1-1/2 week tops
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
EUR: Shorts restrained
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
Tech Targets: EUR/USD, GBP/USD, AUD/USD, NZD/USD, USD/JPY-12.03.2019
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
Brexit and US CPI amongst market movers today
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
Tech Targets: EUR/USD, GBP/USD, AUD/USD, NZD/USD, USD/JPY -11.03.2019
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
USD/CAD struggles to gain positive traction, but holds above 1.3400 handle
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
EUR/USD: Bounce is likely - Commerzbank
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
GBP/USD Pound Fails to Capitalize on Dollar Stumble Ahead of Brexit Votes
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
Gold clings to recovery gains above $1290
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
ECB: All focus on TLTRO announcement
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
US: Focus on Fed speak and trade data
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
Tech Targets: EUR/USD, GBP/USD, AUD/USD, NZD/USD, USD/JPY - 06.03.2019
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
BoC: Policy rate likely to remain unchanged - Rabobank
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
GBP/USD slides back closer to session lows, focus shifts to Carney's testimony
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
Gold consolidates in a range, hangs near 6-week lows
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
Forex Today: Antipodeans slip on China woes; Eurozone/ UK services PMI eyed
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
USD: Prohibitive?
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
GBP/USD drops to session low, bulls struggling to defend 1.3200 mark
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
Forex Today: Risk-on amid US-China trade optimism; UK construction PMI – Up next
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
Global growth hinges on China’s Big Week
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
Gold Technical Analysis: Bears await a sustained break below 1-month old trend-line support
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
EUR/JPY Technical Analysis: The cross now targets the key 200-day SMA
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
Forex Today: Yen weakest in Asia risk-on; focus on UK PMI, Eurozone CPI
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
Gold bears looking for a break of the $1,300/oz level to 38.2% Fibo target
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
EUR/USD turns flat below 1.14 as DXY clings to gains above 96
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
Tech Targets: EUR/USD, GBP/USD, AUD/USD, NZD/USD, USD/JPY - 28.02.2019
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
Oil: Prices stabilising
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
Brexit to remain in focus this week
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
Gold edges lower to $1325 level, focus remains on Powell’s testimony
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
EUR/USD within a tight range near 1.1350, focus on Powell
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
Gold drops below $1330 as USD recovers modestly
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
EUR/JPY challenges 2-day highs near 125.80
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
Tech Targets: EUR/USD, GBP/USD, AUD/USD, NZD/USD, USD/JPY - 25.02.2019
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
USD/CAD Canadian Dollar Higher on Stronger Oil and Softer Dollar
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
EUR/USD eases from tops beyond 1.1350 post-IFO
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
Tech Targets: EUR/USD, GBP/USD, AUD/USD, NZD/USD, USD/JPY - 22.02.2019
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
EUR/GBP flirting with highs near 0.8700, focus on Brexit
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
EUR/USD struggles for direction near 1.1340
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
Forex Today: Aussie sees big moves in Asia; Eurozone flash PMIs, ECB minutes – Up next
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
FOMC Minutes Preview: Major Banks expecting a reiteration of a dovish message
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
EUR/USD: Range preserved – Commerzbank
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
BoJ’s Kuroda: Doesn't believe current BoJ policy is weakening the Yen
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
Comments from Fed’s Mester show balance sheet decision may come as early as March
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
Gold bulls seeking out a run to $1,360/oz while now testing out 10-month highs
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
EUR/USD returns to 1.1300 on mixed German, EMU ZEW
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
EUR/USD eases from 3-day highs above 1.1330
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
Gold bulls take a breather just ahead of $1326 level, or multi-month tops
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
ECB to stay on hold in 2019-20 – Rabobank
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
Dollar Falls as Trade Optimism and Domestic Uncertainty Take Their Toll
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
Oil: Prices are undervalued given the current supply uncertainty - Rabobank
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
EUR/USD rebound from 2019 lows, back around 1.1280
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
Gold hits 2-week tops, around $1320 level amid global growth concerns
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
EUR/USD – Euro shrugs off soft German, eurozone GDP
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
GBP/USD falls to 1-month low, 1.2800 mark back on sight
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
EUR/USD is sitting at key support level
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
USD/MXN holds bullish tone, near 19.30
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
EUR/USD recovers above 1.13 as greenback continues to weaken
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
USD: Downside seems limited in 2019 - Westpac
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
EUR/USD depressed and closer to 1.1300
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
Tech Targets: EUR/USD, GBP/USD, AUD/USD, NZD/USD, USD/JPY - 11.02.2019
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
China stocks climb after holiday break, driven by trade-deal hopes
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
Dollar’s next move depends on Trump’s trade progress and border wall funding concession
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
We see risk that EUR/USD could retreat towards 1.12 on a 3 to 6 mth view - Rabobank
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
GBP/USD spikes to fresh session tops, around 1.2970 level
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
PAMM News
Managed Forex Accounts Daily Results (07.02.2019)
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
Gold Technical Analysis: Descending channel/200-hour SMA confluence region to cap goodish intraday bounce
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
GBP/JPY Technical Analysis: Bulls trying to defend descending channel support ahead of BoE
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
EU slashes euro-zone growth forecast to 1.3%, Italy only 0.2% - EUR/USD pressured
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
Gold slides to $1312 level
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
GBP/USD rallies over 40-pips from 2-week lows, refreshes session tops
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
EUR/USD: Choppy?
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
PAMM News
Managed Forex Accounts Wekly Results
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
Soft Dollar and Strong Stock Market Supported by Dovish Fed and Strong US Economic Data
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
Tech Targets: EUR/USD, GBP/USD, AUD/USD, NZD/USD, USD/JPY-01.02.2019
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
GBP/USD continues to consolidate
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
PAMM News
Managed Forex Accounts Daily Results (31.01.2019)
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
EUR/JPY drops to 6-day lows near 124.50
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
Brexit: Drop the backstop and create a customs association, Ifo economists say
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
PAMM News
Managed Forex Accounts Daily Results (30.01.2019)
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
AUD/USD: Upbeat inflation pleased Aussie bulls before Fed meets
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
EUR/USD Technical Analysis: Upside stalled near the 100-day SMA
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
PAMM News
Managed Forex Accounts Daily Results (29.01.2019)
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613
Market Analysis
Why the Fed may not announce a change to its balance sheet plan on Wednesday
https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/b23a9c274f4a28b6ab7acddb98b80613